Different approaches can be considered in the development of planning. These approaches can be considered according to the different environments in which we may find ourselves.

Normative planning 

Normative planning would be appropriate in more stable environments. It involves procedures that have been fixed in advance in order to create an order that facilitates standardisation, so that it can be controlled and monitored at all points in the process.

The aim is to know which actions will lead to certain goals and which will lead to others, the time needed to achieve each of them and the time needed to complete everything planned.

Therefore, policy planning is a process established at the top management level and prepares the rest of the organisation for decision making through planning.

Situational planning

This form of planning is based on establishing the desirable situation to be achieved. This type of planning will allow us to reach this situation through the establishment of a strategy adapted to it. This type of planning should be understood as an attempt at a paradigm shift within the organisation; the planned actions are those that will allow us to change the situation.

Situational planning must consider all the parties involved, whether directly or indirectly, and all the influence they can generate to achieve or not the situation towards which we want to move. 

We can consider as the characteristics of this type of planning:

– The active exchange that allows the people who plan and the planned objectives to be considered on the same level.

– The establishment of the planning is based on the current situation in which the participants find themselves.

– The prediction of the different intermediate and final situations.

This type of planning is based on the fact that the planning process is part of the reality in which the organisation finds itself and is directly responsible for the desirable change. This implies that all parties that influence the process must be considered as responsible parties to reach a compromise that facilitates the process and execution of the plan.

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