Philip Kotler defined marketing as a social and administrative process by which people get everything they want and need through the exchange of products that have value. Marketing involves a process of analysing, planning, establishing and monitoring programmes set up for exchanges on a voluntary basis to achieve certain objectives.

We can say that marketing is a social process, because it involves people with desires and needs that generate a demand, in the same way that it occurs in the health process.

On the other hand, it can be considered an administrative process, given that as we have mentioned it is a planned, organised process that is put into practice and generates control processes to develop each of the stages of the process.

Therefore, marketing as an administrative and social process tells us that it is a process directed by and for people, which is why it must keep us alert at all times to the true essence of marketing as a process of a «human» nature. In addition, marketing needs to be planned to be implemented and controlled, to be evaluated and corrected in its defects to improve the results of the process and consequently of the organization.


An exchange is a process by which a person gets something that has value to him, in exchange for giving something else in return.

Kotler established five conditions that must be met for there to be a real exchange:

– Two or more people participating in the process.

– Each of the parties involved in the process has something of value to one of the other parties and therefore capable of being exchanged.

All the members of the process are capable of communicating the values of what they possess, and the value that is obtained through the exchange.

The parties that participate in the process must do so with the freedom to accept or reject the exchange of what they possess and what one of the other participants possesses.

All parties understand that the exchange is subject to negotiation, in terms of the conditions and parameters necessary for such an event to take place.

Marketing orientation

Marketing, given its humanised and interchange orientation, is related to the satisfaction of needs, from the most basic to the most complex of human beings. Therefore, it will be a function of marketing to detect these existing needs and subsequently satisfy them in exchange for something of value to the offerer.

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